Phylum protozoa, amoeba (biology)

01/28/2020 0

Phylum protozoa Examples; amoeba, Euglena, paramecium, and trypanosome Characteristics they are single-celled. they are microscopic they reproduce by means of binary fission. they move by ... Read More

Kingdom Protoctista, spirogyra, algae (A-level biology)

01/28/2020 0

Kingdom Protoctista Specific objectives State characteristic of Protoctista. Describe the structure of protozoa Outline the role of protozoa and algae in environment. Name common disease ... Read More

Kingdom Fungi, rhizopus, mold (A-biology)

01/27/2020 0

Kingdom Fungi Specific Objectives The learner should be able to: State the characteristic of fungi State characteristics of Rhizopus or Mucor, yeast, and mushroom. State ... Read More

Kingdom Prokaryotae, Monera, bacteria (A-level biology)

01/27/2020 0

Kingdom Prokaryotae/ Monera/bacteria Specific objectives Make a well-labeled diagram to show the structure of the bacterial cell. Describe the characteristic of bacteria Differentiate between bacteria ... Read More

Principles of classification of organism (A-level biology)

01/27/2020 0

Classification of organism Overview This topic involves the application of biosystematics principles. These include identification, classification and nomenclature. It indicates the relationship among organisms basing ... Read More

Viruses (A-biology)

01/27/2020 0

Viruses Specific objectives Describe the general structure of a virus Explain characteristic of viruses Describe economic importance of viruses Outline methods of preventing the spread ... Read More

Mitosis and meiosis (cell division) (A-level biology)

01/27/2020 0

Cell division Specific objectives The learner should be able to: Describe mitosis and meiosis Compare mitosis and meiosis Explain the significance of the changes in ... Read More

Plant and animal cells and tissues (A-level biology)

01/25/2020 0

Cells and tissues Overview The cell is the basic unit of life. A cell carries out a number of activities including protein synthesis, cell division, ... Read More

Ecology (A-level biology)

01/25/2020 0

Ecology Overview Ecology is the study of the relationship of living organisms with each other and their nonliving environment. The study of ecology lays a ... Read More

DNA, RNA and protein synthesis (A-level biology)

01/24/2020 0

Nature of the Gene and protein synthesis Specific objectives  Describe the composition of chromosomes and the structure of nucleotides  Describe the structure of DNA and ... Read More

Chemicals of life (O-level biology)

01/24/2020 0

Chemicals of life Overview All cells are made up of a variety of substances some of which organic while others are inorganic. Water forms the ... Read More

Chemicals of life (A-level biology)

01/23/2020 5

Chemicals of life Overview All cells are made up of a variety of substances some of which organic while others are inorganic. Water forms the ... Read More

Cell physiology (diffusion, osmosis, active transport, phagocytosis, pinocytosis) (A-level biology)

01/22/2020 1

Cell Physiology Overview Materials move in and out of the cell by the following processes: osmosis, diffusion, active transport, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis. Some of these ... Read More

Evolution (A-level biology)

01/20/2020 0

Evolution—History   of   life. Evolution is the process by which new species are formed from pre-existing one over a long period of time. It is believed ... Read More

Enzymes (biology)

01/20/2020 3

Enzymes Specific objectives The learner should be able to: Describe the criteria for naming enzymes using the type of substrate and type of reaction Explain ... Read More

Growth in plants and animals (A-level biology)

01/18/2020 1

Growth and development. Growth is a permanent increase in the size of an organism by addition of more body substance. The pattern of growth differs ... Read More

Respiration (O-level chemistry)

01/16/2020 3

Respiration This is the oxidation of organic substance to liberate energy in the body. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen whereas anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen. ... Read More

Respiration (A-level biology)

01/15/2020 0

Respiration This is the oxidation of organic substance to liberate energy in the body. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen whereas anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen. ... Read More

Genetic (O-level biology)

01/12/2020 2

Genetics (O-level) This is a branch of biology that tries to explain the cause of similarities and differences between parents and their offsprings. The first ... Read More

Genetics (A-level biology)

01/11/2020 1

Genetics This is a branch of biology that tries to explain the cause of similarities and differences between parents and their offsprings. The first quantitative ... Read More

Moles, mass, gas volumes and equations, s.t.p, r.t.p (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 2

The mole A mole of a substance is the mass in grams of the substance which is numerically equal to its relative atomic mass or ... Read More

Percentages (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 0

PERCENTAGE We calculate the percentage of an element in a compound if we know the relative atomic masses e.g.   Example 1   What is ... Read More

Action of metals with water (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 1

Action of metals with water Most metals react with water to produce hydrogen and the hydroxide of the metal The table below show action of ... Read More

Heat/enthalpy of reaction (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 1

Calculations involving heat in reactions The reaction involves energy change; exothermic reactions such as burning firewoods produce heat while endothermic reactions such as the dissolution ... Read More

THE EMPIRICAL FORMULA (o-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 3

THE EMPIRICAL FORMULA The empirical formula of a compound is the simplest formula, which shows the ratio of the atoms present in a compound or ... Read More

Organic chemistry (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 1

O-level organic chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds of carbon Uniqueness of carbon Carbon forms very many useful compounds with different physical and ... Read More

Balancing equations (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 3

FORMULAE & EQUATIONS Meaning of an equation, if we consider the following equation: Zn(s)  +  H2SO4(aq)       →  Zn SO4(aq)  +  H2(g) 65          (2 + ... Read More

Hygroscopic, deliquensce, efflorescence (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 0

Three ways in which the atmosphere may react with substance: 1.         Hygroscope A hygroscopic substance is one, which absorbs water from the atmosphere e.g. copper ... Read More

Salt (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 2

SALTS A salt is a compound formed when the replaceable hydrogen atom(s) of acid is replaced by a metal or ammonium ion (NH4+) Types of ... Read More

Preparation of gases (O-level chemistry)

01/09/2020 1

Gases LABORATORY PREPARATION OF GASES Four main stages involved when preparing a gas in the laboratory. Production stage: here the reaction occurs in the reaction ... Read More

Separation of mixtures (O-level chemistry)

01/08/2020 0

Separation of mixtures A mixture is a substance, which consists of two or more substances/elements or compounds NOT chemically combined together. Examples of mixtures include;- ... Read More

Water of crystallization (O-level chemistry)

01/08/2020 0

WATER OF CRYSTALISATION: This is the amount of water, which must be present in order for a solid to form crystals.  When this water of ... Read More

Qualitative analysis (o-level chemistry)

01/08/2020 0

Qualitative analysis This is a branch of chemistry that requires the use of known chemicals and reagents called bench reagents to identify unknown chemicals or ... Read More

Period table and bonding (O-level chemistry)

01/08/2020 1

The Periodic Table (PT) The periodic table is a tabular arrangement such that the columns contain elements with electronically similar atoms. The rows of the ... Read More

Hard water and water pollution (O-level chemistry)

01/08/2020 1

Hard water Hard water: is water which does not form lather easily with soap. This is due to the formation of insoluble precipitates (scum) when ... Read More

Extraction of metals (O-level chemistry)

01/07/2020 0

General principles of extraction of metals Occurrence of elements in nature Elements occur in two state Native or free especially less reactive, Au, Ag, Cu, ... Read More

Rusting (O-Level chemistry)

01/07/2020 1

For revision questions and answers download PDF below: rewrite the notes to possess them Rusting-of-iron chemistry RUSTING OF IRON When iron is left in damp ... Read More

Rates of reaction (O-level chemistry)

01/07/2020 0

For revision questions and answers download PDF; rewrite the notes to understand. Rates-of-reaction-o-level chemistry Rates of reaction Rate of a chemical reaction: Is the amount ... Read More

Electrolysis (O-level chemistry)

01/07/2020 3

Electrolysis This is the decomposition of an ionic compound in molten or solution form into its constituent elements by electricity. Note that An electrolyte is ... Read More

Kinetic theory (O-level chemistry)

01/07/2020 0

KINETIC THEORY States that “mater is made of small particles that are in a continuous random motion” The particles move fastest in gases and slowest ... Read More

Carbon and its compounds (O-level chemistry)

01/07/2020 2

Carbon and its compounds Carbon exists in 3 allotropic forms, diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon (charcoal, lampblack, soot, and coke) diamond and graphite are crystalline ... Read More

Chlorine and its compounds (O-level chemistry)

01/06/2020 1

Halogens or Group 7B elements These are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine.  Table 14.0 gives some properties of group 7B elements. Table 14.0  Some ... Read More

Sulphur and its compounds (O-level chemistry)

01/06/2020 1

Sulphur Sulphur occurs naturally in three forms: 1. Free form in Japan, Texas and Louisiana. Extraction of sulphur In order to extract this underground sulphur ... Read More

Nitrogen and it compounds (O-level chemistry)

01/05/2020 2

Nitrogen and its compounds (O-level) Source: Air Industrial preparation of nitrogen By distillation of air from which carbon dioxide and water vapor have been removed. ... Read More

Autotrophic nutrition (A-level biology)

01/04/2020 1

Autotrophic Nutrition This is the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic sources. There are two types of autotrophic nutrition. Chemosynthesis is the synthesis of organic ... Read More