Carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones)

02/29/2020 3

  Carbony compounds The are compounds that contain carbonyl group Aldehydes Thes are carbonyl compounds with the following structure. Nomenclature of aldehydes Aldehyde are named ... Read More


02/29/2020 0

  Alcohols/Alkanols These are organic compounds that contain at least one hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to saturated carbon atom. Classification (a) According to the number ... Read More

Alkylhalides (R-X, X = Cl, Br, I)

02/29/2020 0

  Alkyl halides (R-X, X = Cl, Br, I) These are compounds with at least one halogen atom attached to the parent chain. Classification of ... Read More

Amine (organic chemistry)

02/29/2020 1

  Amines These are organic derivatives of ammonia Classification According to the number of alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom (a) Primary amines: have ... Read More

Alkyne by Dr. Bbosa

02/28/2020 0

Alkyne  General formula CnH2n-2 where n≥2 They contain a triple bond Examples Preparations of alkynes 1.   From vicinal dihalides. Vicinal dihalides are halides with two ... Read More

Alkenes By Dr. Bbosa Science

02/28/2020 2

Alkenes These are hydrocarbons that contain aa double bond The general formula is CnH2n n ≥ 2 Examples are Ethene               CH2=CH2 Propene           CH3CH=CH2 But-1-ene         ... Read More


02/28/2020 0

Alkanes This is the simplest honmologous series General formula: CnH2n where n≥1 Examples Compounds that contain the  same molecular formula but different structural formulae like ... Read More

Zinc and its compounds

02/27/2020 0

Zinc and its compounds Electron configuration 4s23d10 Properties  of zinc as a transition element Forms complexes, e.g. Zn(NH3)42+. ZnO is a catalyst in the formation ... Read More

Copper and its compounds

02/27/2020 1

  Copper and its compounds The electron configuration of copper 4s13d10 Properties of copper as a transition element Forms colored compounds; for instance Cu2+ is ... Read More

Nickel and its compounds

02/27/2020 0

Nickel and its compounds The electron configuration of nickel 4s23d8 Properties of nickel as a transition element Forms colored compounds; for instance, Ni2+ is green ... Read More

Cobalt and its compounds

02/27/2020 0

  Cobalt and its compounds The electron configuration of cobalt 4s3d7 Properties of cobalt as a transition element Forms colored compounds; for instance, Co2+ is ... Read More

Iron and its compound

02/27/2020 0

Iron and its compound Electron configuration of Iron 3d64s2 Properties of iron as a transition element Forms coloured compounds; for instance Fe2+ is green Has ... Read More

Manganese and its compounds

02/27/2020 0

Manganese and its compounds The electron configuration of manganese 4s23d5 Properties of manganese as a transition element Forms colored compounds; for instance, Mn7+ is purple ... Read More

Chromium and its compounds

02/27/2020 0

Chromium The electron configuration of chromium. 4s13d5 Characteristic of chromium as a transition element Forms colored compounds; for instance, Cr3+ is green Has variable oxidation ... Read More

Properties of transition elements

02/26/2020 0

Transition elements, general properties Definition Transition elements are elements with partially filled d-orbital Members Elements Atomic number Electronic configuration Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe ... Read More

Group 7: Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine

02/26/2020 1

Group 7: Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine Members Elements                     Symbols Fluorine                       F Chlorine                      Cl Bromine                      Br Iodine                          I General comment The halogens are one ... Read More

Group 4 element (carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead)

02/26/2020 3

Group 4 Elements, carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and lead Members Elements                     symbol Carbon                        C Silicon                          Si Germanium                Ge Tin                               Sn Lead                            Pb Physical properties ... Read More

Group 3 elements (boron and aluminium)

02/25/2020 2

Group 3 elements Members Elements                             symbol Boron                                    B Aluminium                          Al Gallium                                 Ga Indium                                  In Thallium                               Tl Boron Boron is a nonmetal, aluminium is  ... Read More

Group 2 elements (berylliun, magnesium, calcium, barium)

02/25/2020 3

Group 2A: The alkaline earth metals. The members of group 2A or the alkaline earth metals are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), ... Read More

Structures of solids

02/24/2020 0

Structures of solids Solids have properties that are extremely different from those of gases, e.g., solids are incompressible and have definite shapes.  These properties result ... Read More

Chemistry of period 3 elements

02/24/2020 0

Chemistry of period 3 elements This chapter compares the Chemistry of the elements in period 3 of the periodic table. Each element in a period ... Read More

Molecular structures (shapes molecules)

02/24/2020 0

Molecular structures (shapes molecules) This chapter provides the principles used to predict the shapes of molecules of different compounds. Understanding molecular shapes is very vital ... Read More

Period II, diagonal relationship

02/24/2020 5

Diagonal relationship This is the similarity in chemical properties between elements in the second period with elements which are lying to their right in the ... Read More

Periodic Table (A-level)

02/22/2020 0

The Periodic Table (PT) The periodic table is a tabular arrangement such that the columns contain elements with electronically similar atoms. The rows of the ... Read More

Bonding, A-level

02/21/2020 0

Chemical bonding This chapter teaches the different types and names of bonds that exist in substances that keep their constituent particles together. We will understand ... Read More

Gas laws

02/20/2020 0

Physical behavior of gases Kinetic theory This is useful in accounting for the known properties of gases, liquids and solids. The ideas underlying the kinetic ... Read More

Distribution law/partition coefficient

02/20/2020 0

Equilibrium between immiscible liquids Distribution Law: States that a solute distributes itself between immiscible solvents such that a constant temperature and pressure the ratio of ... Read More

Colligative properties

02/19/2020 2

Colligative properties These are behaviors of solution which depend on the number of nonvolatile dissolved particles (Ions, molecules, atoms, etc.) other than the chemical nature ... Read More

Eutectic mixtures

02/19/2020 0

Eutectic mixtures These are mixtures which at constant pressure freeze at a constant temperature to give a solid of the same composition. Similarities between a ... Read More

Immiscible liquids and steam distillation

02/18/2020 0

Immiscible liquids These are liquids that do not form a uniform solution but separate into two layers when mixed. For these liquids, the total vapor ... Read More

Vapour pressure, Raoult’s law and fractional distillation (A-level)

02/18/2020 0

Vapor Pressure All liquids exhibit tendency for evaporation at their surface.  For evaporation to occur molecules at the surface acquire kinetic energy of liquid molecules ... Read More

Phase equilibrium

02/15/2020 1

Phase equilibrium A phase is a homogenous physical state into which a substance can exist; for example, solid, liquid and vapor/gas Factors affecting the phase ... Read More

Electro-chemical conductivity

02/15/2020 0

Electro-chemical conductivity Resistance R of electrolytic solution This is the drag force experienced by ions as they migrate towards the respective electrodes. Resistance of an ... Read More


02/14/2020 1

Electrolysis This is the decomposition of an ionic compound in molten or solution form to its constituent elements. Mechanism of electrolysis Consider electrolysis of molten ... Read More

Electrochemical cells

02/14/2020 3

           Electrochemical cells When a strip of metal is placed in a solution of its ions, the metal atoms tend to ionize; ... Read More

Equilibrium in solution, Ka, Kb, Kw, Kh, Ksp,Kin

02/13/2020 0

Ionic equilibrium Ionization of a weak acid A weak acid is one that is partially ionized in water. For instance a weak acid HA will ... Read More

Chemical equilibrium, Kc and Kp, factors affecting chemicals equilibrium

02/11/2020 1

Chemical equilibrium It is a branch of physical chemistry that deals with reversible reactions or reactions that proceed in either direction. For example, when steam ... Read More

Thermodynamics (A-level)

02/10/2020 0

Thermodynamics (A-level) Deals with energy changes in chemical reactions In most chemical reactions there is an associated energy change, shown by the evolution of heat ... Read More

Chemical Kinetics (A-level)

02/08/2020 0

Chemical kinetics It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the measurement of reaction velocities/rates and determination of mechanisms by which reactants are converted ... Read More


02/06/2020 1

For revision tests download PDF. For corrections and additions send comments. Soil The term soil is applied to a layer of material overlying the rocks ... Read More

Assexual reproduction, Bryophytes,fern, alternative generation

02/05/2020 0

Patterns of reproduction Asexual reproduction This is a type of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes or a combination of genetic materials ... Read More

Plant tropism, auxin, taxis, nastic movements, photoperiodism

02/05/2020 0

Coordination in plants Coordination is a process of linking up the process in the body of an organism such that the various process occurs in ... Read More

Phylum Arthropoda

02/02/2020 0

Arthropods General characteristics have segments bodies have exoskeleton have jointed legs they have a dorsal heart with an open vascular system They are divided into ... Read More

Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

02/01/2020 0

Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Characteristics their bodies are flat with distinct heads. they are parasitic  are hermaphrodite (have both sexes) They are triploblastic with a body ... Read More

Phylum Nematoda (round worms)

02/01/2020 1

Phylum Nematoda Characteristics they are unsegmented they are laterally symmetrical have cylindrical bodies have separate sexes gaseous exchange occurs by diffusion over the body surface ... Read More

Phylum Annelida: segmented worms

02/01/2020 0

Phylum Annelida: segmented worms E.g. earthworm, leech, lungworm Characteristics of segmented worms Has segmented body It is hermaphrodite Has a complete digestive system Its excretory ... Read More

Kingdom plantae, dicot, monocot, mosses, ferns

02/01/2020 0

Kingdom plantae Specific objectives The learner should be able to To identify lower plants and higher plants using structural features. Name the plant groups to ... Read More