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### Linear momentum (A-level physics)

Linear momentum Linear momentum is a product of the body’s mass and its velocity. The S1 unit of momentum is kgms-1 When a force F ... Read More

### Newton’s laws of motion (A-level physics)

Newton’s laws of motion First Newton’s law of motion. A body remains in its state of rest or uniform motion in straight line unless an ... Read More

### Scalar and vector quantities and resolving of forces (A-level physics)

Scalar and vector quantities Scalar quantities are physical quantities which have only magnitude; for, example speed, mass, volume, energy, time and temperature. Vector quantities are ... Read More

### Motion under gravity and projectiles (A-level physics)

Motion under gravity In absence of any resistance, all bodies regardless of their mass fall with same acceleration near the earth’s surface. Acceleration due to ... Read More

### Linear motion, equations of motion (A-level physics)

Linear motion Terms used Displacement is the distance moved by a body in a specific direction Velocity is the rate of change of displacement Uniform ... Read More

### Physical quantities, units, and dimensions (A-level physics)

Physical quantities Physical quantities are divided into two groups (a) Fundamental quantities These are physical quantities that cannot be expressed in the form of other ... Read More

### Optical instruments (A-level physics)

Optical instruments An optical instrument is a device that aids vision working on the principles of reflection and refraction of light. Examples are the human ... Read More

### Refraction through the convex and concave lenses (A-level physics)

Refraction through lenses A lens is a piece of glass bounced by one or two spherical surfaces. Lenses are of two types namely; (i) Convex ... Read More

### Geometrical optic, prisms (A-level physics)

Deviation of light through a prism The angle of deviation caused by the prism is the angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray. ... Read More

### Principles of refraction , refraction through a glass block and liquids (A-level physics)

Refraction at plane surfaces Refraction is the bending of light at an interface between two media of different optical densities or it is the change ... Read More

### Convex and concave mirrors (A-level physics)

Reflection at curved mirrors Curved mirrors are of two types namely; (i) Concave (Converging) mirror: it is part of the sphere whose center C is ... Read More

### Plane mirrors (A-level physics)

Geometrical optics Optics is the study of light energy and its properties Evidences that light is a form of energy When light enters our eyes, ... Read More

### Simple machines (O-level physics)

Machines A machine is a device that makes work easier. In machines, an effort (force in Newtons) is applied to move the load. The effort ... Read More

### Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids (A-level organic chemistry)

Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids Closely related to carboxylic acids and to each other are a number of chemical families known as functional derivatives of ... Read More

### Benzene and its compounds (A-level organic chemistry)

Aromatic (benzene ans its) compounds These include benzene and compounds that resemble benzene in chemical behavior. Benzene Chemical formula: C6H6. Structure Benzene is a cyclic ... Read More

### Soap (A-level organic chemistry)

Soap and detergents Soap is a mixture of the sodium salt of long-chain fatty acids. Fatty acids are straight-chain carboxylic acid Saponification: is the process ... Read More

### Polymerization (A-level organic chemistry)

Polymerization A polymer is a high molecular mass species consisting of regularly repeating units or chemically similar units, linked by primary covalent bonds. Polymerization is ... Read More

### Carboxylic acid or alkanoic acids (A-level organic chemistry)

Carboxylic acids The carboxylic group is a combination of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group(OH): the name carboxylic group. Nomenclature Their names end with ... Read More