Discuss the causes and effects of soil erosion in East Africa

03/31/2023 0

Candidates are expected to define soil erosion as the removal/washing away of the top thin layer of soil by agents like wind, running water, glaciers ... Read More


03/31/2023 0

Isenberg is a hill of hard volcanic rock that has resisted wind and weather and remained strong and tall as the land around it eroded ... Read More


03/31/2023 0

Insolation is the amount of solar radiation received on a given surface in a given time period. Read More

Describe conditions that influence the in-coming solar radiation in an area. 

03/31/2023 0

Latitude The angular distance of a place from the equator partially determines the distance from the sun to the earth’s surface. This further determines the ... Read More

Distinguish between terrestrial radiation and solar radiation 

03/31/2023 2

Terrestrial radiation (Thermal Radiation) This is the energy transmitted/transferred from the earth's surface to the atmosphere. Radioactive decay of isotopes at the earth's surface contributes ... Read More


03/31/2023 0

Albedo  is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation and measured on a scale from 0, corresponding ... Read More

Account for the decline of savannah vegetation cover in East Africa. 

03/31/2023 0

  A candidate is expected to define the term savanna vegetation   Savanna vegetation lies between the tropical forest zone and desert areas.   A ... Read More

Explain the influence of denudational processes on the formation of lakes in East Africa

03/31/2023 0

Candidates are to define the Term Lake and denudational processes. A lake can be defined as a body of water occupying a hollow or depression ... Read More

To what extent have human activities been responsible for the occurrence of landslides in East Africa. 

03/31/2023 1

Candidates should define landslides as: Landslide is a Fast/rapid/sudden movement of weathered materials of rocks from the upper to the lower slopes under the influence ... Read More

Explain the process responsible for the formation of igneous rocks in East Africa. 

03/31/2023 0

Candidates are expected to:- Define igneous rocks Identify process of formation. Give origin of process Identify/describe the types of igneous rocks.  Igneous rocks are fire ... Read More

Sedimentary rocks

03/31/2023 0

Sedimentary rocks are rocks that are composed of particles of rocks that have been deposited in layers by water, wind or moving ice. They are ... Read More

Igneous rocks

03/31/2023 0

Igneous rocks are fine formed rocks due to vulcanicity. Characteristics of igneous rocks They are crystalline in structure They do not contain Some are spongy ... Read More

What is Vulcanicity in geography?

03/31/2023 0

Volcanism, vulcanism or volcanicity is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, ... Read More

Explain the factors which influence soil profile development in East Africa.

03/26/2023 0

Candidates are expected to explain the conditions for soil profile development   Nature of the parent Rock Hard rocks which are not easily weathered such ... Read More

Soil profile

03/26/2023 0

Soil profile refers to the vertical arrangement /section through the soil from the surface up to the parent rock. It is composed of soil layers ... Read More

Explain the weather conditions associated with tropical cyclones. 

03/26/2023 0

The weather conditions associated with tropical cyclones are winds, pressure, humidity, clouds and rain These weather conditions vary with vortices. Those in the advance vortex ... Read More

Examine the influence of altitude on vegetation zonation in the highlands of East Africa. 

03/26/2023 0

Candidates are expected to define vegetation zonation, identify the highlands of East African then illustrate the vegetation zones on the highlands of East Candidates should ... Read More

Vegetation meaning

03/26/2023 0

Vegetation is a continuous plant cover. Read More

Factors Influencing Types and Distribution of Vegetation in East Africa

03/25/2023 1

Topographical Factors Altitude Coniferous trees are found at high altitudes because they are adapted to cool conditions. There is no vegetation on mountain tops because ... Read More

Characteristics of tropical cyclones

03/25/2023 0

They originate from within the tropical latitude usually between 5° and 200 North and south of Equator They cover a diameter of between 80-400 km ... Read More

Location/areas where tropical cyclones occur

03/25/2023 0

They develop or occur in the tropics between 5° and 20° North and South of the equator. Read More

Tropical cyclone

03/25/2023 0

A tropical cyclone also known as typhoons(Asia), or hurricanes (America and West Indies),  Willy-willies (Australia)  or simply cyclones is an intense, low pressure wind system ... Read More

crater meaning

03/24/2023 0

A crater is a bowl-shaped depression, or hollowed-out area, produced by the impact of a meteorite, volcanic activity, or an explosion. Read More

Value of craters to the national economy

03/24/2023 0

Tourist attraction hence source of local income and foreign exchange to develop socio-economic infrastructure Salt extract/ Quarrying for local income, export for foreign exchange, used ... Read More

Landforms resulting from glacial erosion 

03/19/2023 0

A cirque (corrie) is a steep sided rock basin, semi-circular in plan cut into valley heads and mountain Many are very small but some have ... Read More

Truncated spurs

03/19/2023 0

Truncated spurs. These are spurs with steep edges ending in the valley. They are formed when former interlocking spurs are affected by plucking during glacial ... Read More

Crag and Tail.

03/19/2023 0

Crag and Tail is a mass of resistant rock outcrop, steep on the up - stream side which protects the soft rocks on the leeward ... Read More

What is the difference between crag and tail and roche moutonnée?

03/19/2023 0

A crag and tail is distinguished from a roche moutonnée by the presence of an elongate, tapered ridge of till extending downstream. Often produced by ... Read More

Roche moutennee

03/19/2023 0

Roche moutennee is a gentle sloping mass of rock on upstream side and steep irregular on downstream side. It is formed when the upstream side is ... Read More

Rock Basins.

03/19/2023 0

Rock Basins. These are circular depressions in U- shaped valleys. These are formed due to unequal power of erosion due to varying thickness of ice ... Read More

Hanging valleys

03/19/2023 0

Hanging valleys. These are tributary valleys above the main valley that descend steeply into the main valley. They generally form when glacier ice deeply erodes ... Read More

Glacial trough

03/19/2023 0

Glacial trough is a broad bottom and steep sided U- shaped valley, It is formed when a river valley is filled with glacier. Plucking and abrasion ... Read More


03/19/2023 0

An arête is a narrow step sided rocky ridge separating two cirques. It results from the glacial erosional process of plucking and abrasion which lead ... Read More

A pyramidal peak geograpghy

03/19/2023 0

This is a sharp rock pinnacle which is steep sided surrounded by a system of radiating arêtes. It is formed from glacial erosion where cirques ... Read More

Solifluction in geography

03/19/2023 0

Solifluction is a process where water-saturated soil flows down a steep slope   Read More

Corrie in geography

03/19/2023 0

A corrie is a horseshoe-shaped valley which is formed through erosion by ice or glaciers. Read More

What is a cirque and how is it formed?

03/19/2023 0

Cirques are bowl-shaped, amphitheater-like depressions that glaciers carve into mountains and valley sidewalls at high elevations. Drawing of cirque Read More

The processes of glacial erosion in East Africa

03/19/2023 0

Is a process by which frozen rock and any other loose fragments tear away from the rock as the glacier moves down slope. It is ... Read More


03/19/2023 0

Glaciation comes from the word ''glacier" which means moving large mass of ice from higher level to lower level under the influence of gravity resulting ... Read More

The effects /landforms due to river rejuvenation.

03/19/2023 33

V-knick point is a sharp break of slope in the long profile of a river valley. It is a point in the river bed where ... Read More

Entrenched meander.

03/19/2023 0

Entrenched meander. These are valleys with steep sided symmetrical profiles. They develop on weak reeks where there's rapid lowering of the base level   Read More

Ingrown meanders

03/19/2023 0

Ingrown meanders. This is a valley with an asymmetrical cross-profile, where one side is steeper than the other.  It normally develops on more resistant rocks ... Read More

Knick point

03/19/2023 0

V-knick point is  is part of a river or channel where there is a sharp change in channel slope, such as a waterfall or lake. ... Read More

Causes of river rejuvenation

03/18/2023 1

River rejuvenation is the renewal of the erosive activity of the river within its old valley. Heavy rainfall (climate change) in the catchment areas causes ... Read More

River rejuvenation

03/18/2023 0

Dr. bb River rejuvenation is the renewal of the erosive activity of the river within its old valley. Read More

Chemical Weathering

03/18/2023 0

Chemical weathering is a process where minerals in a rock may be converted into clays, oxidized or simply dissolved. Chemical Weathering involves processes like Conversion ... Read More

Weathering meaning in geography

03/18/2023 0

Weathering is a term which describes the general process by which rocks are broken down or dissolve at the Earth’s surface into such things as ... Read More

Account for the occurrence of physical weathering in East Africa.

03/18/2023 0

  A Candidate is expected to: Define physical weathering Identify areas of occurrence Identify process of physical weathering Explain factors for the occurrence of physical ... Read More

Biological weathering or chelation.

03/18/2023 0

Combines the effects of plant roots and other microorganisms for example Plant roots growing into the rock increase internal stresses and strains causing rock disintegration ... Read More

Processes of physical weathering in East Africa

03/18/2023 2

Physical weathering is disintegration /break down of rocks into small fragments with no change in the rocks chemical composition in situ Physical weathering is common ... Read More

Granular disintegration

03/17/2023 0

Granular disintegration - refers to the breakdown of rocks into tiny rock pieces/grains due to differential heating and cooling. This process affects rocks composed of different minerals (heterogeneous ... Read More

Differentiate between block disintegration and exfoliation

03/17/2023 0

Block disintegration is Physical weathering process by which well jointed and well bedded rocks are broken down into smaller blocks through the process of expansion ... Read More

Contributions of multinational corporations to economic development in Uganda   

03/15/2023 1

Filling the savings/investment gap. Filling the manpower gap Filling the technological gap/promoting technological transfer Filling the foreign exchange gap Increase government revenue through taxation. Create ... Read More

Multi-national/multinational corporation

03/15/2023 0

Multi-national corporation is an enterprise/firm with/which has headquarter in one country but with branches/subsidiaries in many countries. Read More

Factors that influence production costs in Uganda.   

03/15/2023 0

The quantity of output produced/ the scale of production. The wage rate and the number of workers employed. The cost of raw material input/ the ... Read More

Features of good economic development plan.

03/15/2023 0

A good plan should be compatible. It should have a good sequence/should be sequenced. It should have clear objectives to all people involved in plan ... Read More

Disadvantages/demerits of indirect taxes

03/15/2023 0

They are regressive in nature i.e. the rich and the poor pay the same price for commodities / widen income inequality. They tend to be ... Read More

Why do developing countries rely more on indirect taxes as a source of revenue? 

03/15/2023 0

They are relatively easy and cheap to collect / economical. They are difficult to evade because people do not have alternative but to pay them ... Read More

Factors that influence the effective operation of monetary policy in developing countries. 

03/15/2023 0

Nature of distribution of commercial banks. Level of accountability in the banking sector. Level of coordination of goverm11ent objectives. Level of liquidity preference among the ... Read More

Profit determination in monopolistic competition

03/15/2023 0

Short run equilibrium position of a firm under monopolistic competition The monopolistically    competitive   firm earns super normal profits (abnormal   profits) in the short run. Equilibrium       ... Read More