Physical geography Chapter 4: Rocks

04/28/2023 4

Mineral A mineral is a naturally occurring substance which has certain physical properties and a definite chemical composition Rock A rock is an aggregate of ... Read More

Shale

04/28/2023 0

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock formed from mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals  and tiny fragments of other minerals, ... Read More

Explain why sickle cell trait is prevalent in malaria prone areas

04/27/2023 1

Sickle cell trait is caused by a recessive allele in heterozygote state. Malaria acts as a selection pressure for heterozygote promoting their high occurrence in ... Read More

When light and temperature are optimum while carbon dioxide concentration is low, the rate of photosynthesis can’t increase further.

04/27/2023 0

In isolated populations mutations and natural selection occurs differentially leading to evolution of new species Read More

Structure of the earth, continental drift and earthquakes

04/27/2023 0

Physical geography Chapter 1: Structure of the earth, continental drift and earthquakes In the universe we live on planet earth, is the third planet from the ... Read More

Lateral and vertical Earth movement

04/27/2023 0

Lateral earth movements They are diastrophic/large scale differential movements that operate horizontally within the earth crust. They are caused by internal forces i.e. tensional forces ... Read More

Physical geography Chapter 3: Vulcanicity in East Africa

04/27/2023 1

Volcanism, volcanism or Vulcanicity is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, ... Read More

Shield volcanoes

04/26/2023 0

Shield volcanoes are usually constructed almost entirely of basaltic and/or andesitic lava flows which were very fluid when erupted and flowed through several fissures . ... Read More

Ash and cinder cone meaning geography

04/26/2023 0

cinder cone, also called ash cone, deposit around a volcanic vent, formed by pyroclastic rock fragments (formed by volcanic or igneous action), or cinders, which ... Read More

Orogeny

04/26/2023 0

Orogeny refers specifically to deformation imposed during mountain building generally along an entire continental margin as a result of the convergence and accretion of two ... Read More

Oceanic Crust (SIMA)

04/26/2023 0

Oceanic crust is made up of heavy basalt rocks (average density 3) and thickness between 5-10 kilometers (3-6 kilometers). SIMA stands for silicate and magnesium, ... Read More

Continental crust (SIAL)

04/26/2023 0

Continental Crust Continental crust is made up of very old light rocks (average density 2.6) of mainly granites. SIAL stands for silicate and aluminum, the ... Read More

Types of plate tectonic boundaries

04/26/2023 0

There are three types of Plate tectonic boundaries A divergent boundary(constructive plate boundary/margin) occurs when two tectonic plates move away from each other widening the gap ... Read More

Tectonic plates

04/25/2023 0

Tectonic plates are blocks of continental and ocean crust. The earth’s surface is divided into blocks of continental and oceanic crust Characteristics of plates Plates ... Read More

Physical geography Chapter 2: Faulting and East Africa

04/24/2023 1

Faulting is s the fracturing/ breaking/ rapturing/cracking of rocks due to strain and stress which subsequently leads to the dislocation and displacement of rock strata. ... Read More

Physical geography Chapter 1: Structure of the earth, continental drift andEarthquakes

04/24/2023 0

In the universe we live on planet earth, is the third planet from the Sun at a distance of about 93 million miles (150 million km). is ... Read More

River capture – meaning

04/23/2023 1

River capture may only occur where there are 2 adjacent rivers/ share a watershed One river has more erosive power than the other The more ... Read More

Account for the occurrence of large-scale mass wasting in the highland areas of East Africa

04/23/2023 1

Candidates are expected to have the following approach Definition of mass wasting Identification of areas affected Description of types of types of mass wasting; (illustrations ... Read More

Solifluction

04/23/2023 0

Solifluction is a collective name for gradual processes in which a mass moves down a slope ("mass wasting") related to freeze-thaw activity. Read More

Examine the relevance of the plate tectonic theory in the understanding of the present day distribution of oceans and land masses   

04/23/2023 0

Candidates should bring out the distribution of land masses and water bodies (oceans) in relation to tectonic plates It explains the movement and distribution of ... Read More

Distinguish between lateral and vertical earth movements

04/23/2023 0

 Lateral earth movements are diastrophic/large scale differential movements that operate horizontally within the earth crust They are caused by internal forces e. tensional forces (divergent ... Read More

Tectonism meaning

04/23/2023 0

Tectonism is the faulting or folding or other deformation of the outer layer of a planet. Read More

Nitisols

04/22/2023 0

Nitisols are strongly weathered soils but far more productive than most other red tropical soils e.g. on Kenya Highlands Read More

Luvisolic soil/luvisols

04/22/2023 0

Luvisolic soils are forest soils that form in medium- and fine-textured parent materials Read More

To what extent has altitude influenced vegetation distribution in East Africa?

04/22/2023 0

The candidate is expected to:                                                                                                         · Define vegetation. Identify the vegetation types in East Africa and their location. Examine the role of Altitude. Examine the ... Read More

Orographic rainfall

04/22/2023 0

Orographic rainfall is precipitation produced when the mountains or uplands such as Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Keny act as barriers to airflow, forcing the air to rise. ... Read More

Hail 

04/22/2023 0

Hail is a form of precipitation made up of frozen rain droplets which range between 5-50mm in diameter. It consists of balls or irregular lumps of ... Read More

Fog

04/22/2023 0

Fog is a cloud of small water droplets suspended in the air near  ground level and sufficiently dense to reduce  horizontal visibility to less than ... Read More

Reaction of phosphorus with concentrated acid

04/21/2023 1

Phosphorus gets oxidised to phosphoric acid according to the following reaction  2P+5H2SO4→2H3PO4+2H2O+5SO2. Read More

Explain the influence of ocean currents on the climate of Africa.

04/21/2023 0

Africa's coastline is affected by the following ocean currents. The warm Mozambique/Agulhas ocean current on the Eastern coast of Southern Africa, the Benguela cool current ... Read More

What is ocean current? 

04/21/2023 1

Candidates are expected to:- Define ocean currents, explain the causes of ocean currents, identify the types of ocean currents i.e. warm and cold currents and ... Read More

Account for the occurrence of sea level 

04/21/2023 0

Candidates should define the term "sea-level changes'' as a rise or fall in the level of the sea relative to the land or the vertical ... Read More

Subduction-geography

04/21/2023 0

Subduction occurs when an oceanic plate runs into a continental plate and slides beneath it. Read More

Eustatic change – meaning in geography

04/21/2023 0

Eustatic sea level changes are  changes in sea level due to changes in the volume of water in the ocean. These can be due to ... Read More

 Explain the influence of earth movements on the formation of lakes in East Africa. 

04/21/2023 0

Candidates should define a lake as a hollow in the Earth's surface filled by water • Lakes in East Africa differ in permanency, salinity, shape, ... Read More

Lake

04/21/2023 0

A lake is a body of water that is surrounded by land or a hollow in earth surface filled by water. Read More

Gleying meaning

04/20/2023 0

Gleying  is a technical term that describes the gray, blue, purple or green soil colors that occur in soils that have been waterlogged 1 for prolonged periods of ... Read More

Describe the weathering processes taking place in the Lake Victoria basin of East 

04/20/2023 0

Candidates  are expected to Define weathering Give the climatic conditions/characteristics of Lake Victoria basin Identify the types of weathering processes taking place in the Lake ... Read More

Examine the relevance of Wegner’s theory of continental drift in explaining the present day position of 

04/20/2023 0

Candidates are expected to define continental drift  Continental drift is the movement of continental landmasses/blocks relative to one another (away, towards or alongside), across the ... Read More

Evaporites-meaning

04/20/2023 0

Evaporites are layered crystalline sedimentary rocks that form from brines generated in areas where the amount of water lost by evaporation exceeds the total amount ... Read More

What is a coral reef?

04/20/2023 0

Coral reef are are mad of millions of tiny animals that contain plant contain plants called algae. Coral reefs form at depths not exceeding 25 ... Read More

Laterite

04/20/2023 0

Laterite is both a soil and a rock type rich in iron and aluminium and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical ... Read More

Palaeomagnetism

04/20/2023 0

Palaeomagnetism  is the study of magnetic fields recorded in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Read More

Moraine

04/20/2023 0

A moraine is material left behind by a moving glacier. This material is usually soil and rock. Read More

Distinguish between Azonal and Intrazonal soil 

04/19/2023 0

Azonal soils are young soils without a clear soil profile. They are soils that have not been exposed to soil forming processes for a long ... Read More

Solonchaks soil -geography

04/19/2023 0

Solonchaks soil  are soils that have a high concentration of 'soluble salts' at some time in the year. Solonchaks are largely confined to the arid ... Read More

 Solonetzic soil-geography

04/19/2023 0

Solonetzic soils, often called burnout or gumbo soils, are characterized by a tough, impermeable hardpan that may vary from 5 to 30 cm (2 to 12 ... Read More

Azonal soils

04/19/2023 0

Azonal soils are young soils without a clear soil profile. They are soils that have not been exposed to soil forming processes for a long ... Read More

Loess

04/19/2023 0

Loess  is a layer of fine mineral rich material/dust and silt blown by wind   Read More

Explain the conditions that have influenced the distribution of mangrove forests in East Africa 

04/19/2023 0

Candidates are expected to identify areas in East Africa, with Mangrove forests/vegetation i.e. Areas along the coast of East Africa between 50Nand 50S of equator, ... Read More

Characteristics of Mangrove forests 

04/19/2023 0

The trees are evergreen because of high rainfall received throughout the year. Trees have broad leaves to get rid of excess water. Trees have aeria1/silt ... Read More

Examine the causes and effects of land and sea breezes in East 

04/19/2023 1

Candidates are expected to: Define land and sea Identify the areas where they occur in East Africa. Factors of land and sea breezes. Causes and ... Read More

Account for the variations in the temperature experienced in different areas of East Africa. 

04/19/2023 0

Candidates are expected to define temperature, should give brief description of variations in the temperature experienced in different areas of East Africa with specific examples ... Read More

Differentiate between annual range of temperature and diurnal range of temperature

04/19/2023 0

Candidates are expected to differentiate between annual range of temperature and diurnal range of temperature. Annual  range of temperature is the difference between  the   highest ... Read More

To what extent has relief influenced the development of drainage patterns in East Africa?

04/19/2023 0

Candidates should define the term drainage pattern Drainage pattern is s the layout/plan or arrangement made by a river and its tributaries on the landscape ... Read More

Drainage pattern-geography

04/19/2023 0

Drainage pattern  is the layout/plan or arrangement made by a river and its tributaries on the landscape (Drainage basin) over which it flows. Read More

Describe the landforms resulting from chemical weathering in East

04/19/2023 1

Candidates should define chemical weathering as the decomposition/decay/rotting of rocks at or near the earth surface. It occurs in situ (one place). Candidates should identify ... Read More

Polje – geography

04/19/2023 0

Polje. This is an  elongated basin having a flat floor and steep walls. The poljes are formed by coalescence of several sinkholes when being formed ... Read More

Limestone gorge

04/19/2023 0

Limestone gorge is deep steep-sided valley formed  when acid rain seeps into the cracks  in  limestone rocks or when a larger river erodes/ weathers soft ... Read More