Why do commercial crop varieties have a relatively uniform genotype?

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Are produced from the same genetic stock Crops produced by genetic engineering Inbreeding Genetic erosion Please find free downloadable notes, exams and marking guides of ... Read More

Cause of discontinuous variations

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  Different alleles at a single gene locus that have a large effect on the phenotype mutations Please find free downloadable notes, exams and marking guides of agriculture, biology, ... Read More

Causes of continuous variation 

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Multiple genes controlling a character/polygenic characters Environmental factors chance Please find free downloadable notes, exams and marking guides of agriculture, biology, and chemistry from digitalteachers.co.ug ... Read More

The difference between continuous variation and discontinuous variation

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Variation is said to be continuous when there is a gradual change of character from one individual to another; e.g. skin color, length of leaves, ... Read More

the ecological significance/importance of primary growth in plants.

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Increases length of stem to reach light Increase length of roots to reach water and mineral salts Increases the length of roots anchor the plant ... Read More

Contribution of secondary thickening to strength and support of a growing plant

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Vascular forms secondary xylem which lignin that provides support. Cork cambium forms the tough outermost layer of the stem that provides strength. Increase in girth ... Read More

Photoperiodism and seed dormancy

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Bud dormancy is induced by shortened photoperiod as well as reduced temperature due production of abscisic acid. On the other hand, auxins and gibberellins break ... Read More

Role of testosterone hormone in territoriality/territorial behavior

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Increase in testosterone level in male animals increase physical aggression to defend the territory Increase in testosterone level in male animals increase physical aggression to ... Read More

Role of pheremorones in territorial behavior

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Animals such dogs, cats, and other animals use pheromones to mark their territories and establish ownership. Pheromones help animals to distinguish members of the territory. ... Read More

The significance of insight learning in animal behaviour. 

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Enables animals to solve unfamiliar problems using reason, especially to form conclusions, inferences, or judgments. Please find free downloadable notes, exams and marking guides of ... Read More

Imporantance/role of endodermis in transport of substances

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Contains impermeable thickening of suberin called Casparian strip which forces water and solutes to cross the plasma membranes of endodermal cells instead of slipping between ... Read More

Organelles in eukaryotic cells which are not membrane bound

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Ribosomes Cytoskeleton P-bodies Germ granules Cell water Please find free downloadable notes, exams and marking guides of agriculture, biology, and chemistry from digitalteachers.co.ug website. Dr. ... Read More

Adaptations of diving animals to conserving oxygen or diving response

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Physiological adaptations of diving animals include increased blood volume and elevated hematocrit (percentage of volume of blood which red blood cells), hemoglobin, and myoglobin, whereas ... Read More

Means/ways of improving the marketing of perishable agricultural products.

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Processing thereby adding value for instance turning into tomato sauce Preserving to increase self-life e.g. refrigeration Improving transport network for easy access to the market ... Read More

The factors that affect the interest rate charged on agricultural credit.

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Government policy: The central bank of a country controls the money supply and the base rate of interest through its monetary policy. Economic strength: A ... Read More

Characteristics of a good foundation for building.

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Should Strong and stable base for the superstructure. Should be weather resistant such as flood, decay-resistant materials (reinforced concrete or preservative treated wood). Elements sized ... Read More

The measures that should be taken to ensure efficient use of farm tools and equipment

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Sharpen the tool before and after use. Lubricate machines to reduce friction: Machines should be used for purpose intended for/according to manufacturer’s recommendations Store tools ... Read More

The factors that determine a farmer’s choice of tools and implements to buy for use on a farm. 

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Adaptability: farmers prefer implements that can work under the local conditions. Availability of implement: farmers select an implement from those available and those with available ... Read More

Measures to ensure production of good quality eggs

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Keep nest clean. Maintaining clean nesting material will reduce microbial exposure when the egg is first laid. Collect eggs regularly at least daily and preferably ... Read More

 Defects that may make eggs unsuitable for incubation.

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Infertile eggs Dirty eggs Broken/cracked eggs Eggs with abnormalities like meat and blood spots Eggs with thin walls Eggs from sick birds Please find free ... Read More

Ways of storing eggs to ensure their quality is maintained.

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Relative humidity75%. Store the eggs with the small end pointed downward. Alter egg position periodically if not incubating within 4-6 days. Store eggs in clean ... Read More

Importance of soil water

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It a medium through which mineral nutrients are absorbed by the plant Promote weathering and soil formation Soil water is absorbed and used for photosynthesis, ... Read More

Methods/Ways of improving the marketing of perishable agricultural products. 

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Processing thereby adding value for instance turning into tomato sauce Preserving to increase self-life e.g. refrigeration Improving transport network for easy access to the market ... Read More

Importance/function/benefits of market information on efficient marketing of agricultural products

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Help a farmer to find the market for his produce Enable a farmer to negotiate appropriate price for the produce Enable locating the source of ... Read More

Criteria/Conditions do financial institutions take into account before offering credit to farmers? 

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Demonstration of ability to pay back the loan including from other sources in case of poor harvest Possession of security Type of farm enterprise proposed ... Read More

Advantages and disadvantages of using mud as a building material for constructing the walls of farm buildings

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Advantages of using mud as a building material for constructing the walls of farm buildings Mud is cheap Mud is readily available Mud has good ... Read More

How/ways of caring for sick animals

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Give proper veterinary services Keep sick animal clean and in hygienic environment Provide nutritious food Provide beneficial bedding Provide adequate clean water Allow them to ... Read More

Factors that predispose/expose animals to diseases

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Age: young and old animals are at risk of getting diseases because young animals have underdeveloped immune system while old animals have worn out immune ... Read More

Factors that influence the productivity of beef animals.

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Breeding type: genetic composition of beef animal determines its growth rate, feed efficiency and reproductive performance that contributed to overall productivity. Proper feeding on balanced ... Read More

Ways of controlling storage pests. 

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Hand picking and destruction of pests Use extreme (high or low) temperatures to kill pests Use of radiations Dehydration of pest Use of irritating sound ... Read More

The physiological processes that take place during seed germination

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Hydrolysis of storage food material into soluble products Translocation of soluble products from storage area to the actively growing centres. Synthesis of enzymes, nucleic acids, ... Read More

Association between nutrients uptake and pant growth

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Region A/deficient zone: crop production increases with soil nutrient concentration due to increase nutrient usage by the plant as soil nutrient concentration increase. Region B/Optimum ... Read More

Negative effects of genetic engineering in crop production 

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May cause allergy and other diseases to the people Some genetically modified foods have low nutrient content Some genetically modified lead to antibiotic resistant High ... Read More

Benefits/advantages/importance of genetic engineering to crop breed

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Creates pest-resistant crops Produce fast growing crops enhancing nutritional content of plant yields produces high yielding crops varieties. Produces crops tolerant to herbicides Produce draught ... Read More

Reasons for including basal feeds in the ration of a farm 

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Nutritional Balance: Basal feeds are essential for meeting the basic nutritional requirements of animals. They provide energy proteins, vitamins and minerals necessary for proper growth Digestive ... Read More

Basal feeds

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Basal feeds are concentrated sources of energy and are especially rich in starches and sugars. They include the whole group of grains (e.g. wheat, maize, oats, ... Read More

Factors that affect the performance of a sprayer

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Pressure and delivery of the pump Speed of forward travel active ingredient to water ratio in the tank Height of boom Nozzle spacing Please find ... Read More

Seed rate meaning, effect on yield and factors that affects it

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Seed rate It is the number of seeds required for a unit area of land to grow a crop successfully Effects of seed rate on ... Read More

Candling of eggs

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It is a procedure where bright light is shone through and egg to view its interior in order to determine whether it is developing well. ... Read More

Symptoms of viral disease in plants

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Necrotic spots Abnormal dark green and light green mosaic and mottling of leaves Growth distortion Stunting Ring patterns or bumps on plant foliage Please find ... Read More

Steps ih growing mushrooms

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Ensure that the environment and equipment are clean and sterile Choose the variety of mushroom you want to grow. Obtain the Mushroom Spawn. Prepare the substrate ... Read More

Purpose of pruning plants

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Pruning is an essential horticultural practice that involves selectively removing specific parts of a plant, such as branches, leaves, or buds. Improve health and promote healthy ... Read More

How the quality of silage can be improved.

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Use the right type of grass and legume species ensiled Cut grass at the right stage of growth of the species ensiled Ferment for at ... Read More

Explanation of events that occur plants along the growth curve

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(a) Name the different stages of plant growth curve A – B: lag phase/establishment stage B – C: logarithmic stage/rapid growth stage C – D: ... Read More

Physiological events that occur during seed germination or lag stage of plant growth

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Hydrolysis of storage food material Synthesis of enzymes, nucleic acids, structural proteins Respiration to provide energy for cellular activities Glucose and amino acids are translocated ... Read More

Factors that affect symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the soil 

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Presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria (of the genus Rhizobium) Presence of root legume roots in whose root nodule bacteria live Presence favorable temperature Presence of oxygen ... Read More

Uses of nitrogen to the plant

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used in synthesis of chlorophyll used in production structure i.e. constituent of proteins used in synthesis of enzymes used in synthesis of hormones used in ... Read More

Ways in which the construction of ridges improves crop production in waterlogged soils. 

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Water management: ridges manage excess water by elevating the crop rows promoting aeration of the soil, promoting root growth and nutrient uptake Improved soil structure: ... Read More

Waterlogging of soil affects crop growth 

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Reduced oxygen levels near the rhizosphere Altered soil physicochemical properties Reduced nitrogen uptake Anaerobic conditions prevail, leading to crop death Plant roots fail to respire ... Read More

Factors that influence the carrying capacity of pasture

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Size of pastureland: the bigger the size of pastureland, the higher the carrying capacity Absence of pests and diseases lead to high carrying capacity Forage ... Read More

Carrying capacity

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It is the maximum number of organisms that an ecosystem can sustainably support. Please find free downloadable notes, exams and marking guides of agriculture, biology, ... Read More

Stocking rate

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Stocking rate is defined as the number of animals on a given amount of land over a certain period of time. Please find free downloadable notes, ... Read More

Qualities of a poultry house

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Should be well-ventilated for proper aeration Should be lockable for security Should be fireproof. Should be protected from pests Should have leak free roof to ... Read More

Effects of poor site drainage on a farm building

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Foundation Stability: Buildings constructed on poorly drained sites may experience unstable foundations due to shifting soil caused by water saturation. This instability can lead to ... Read More

Mortar for block laying

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Recommended ratios of sand to cement depending on specific application and desired strength of the mortar include Standard mortar mix : 4 parts sand to ... Read More

Conditions in cattle can lead to muscular spasms, uncoordinated movement, and paralysis. 

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Milk fever Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease Botulism: Caused by the toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, botulism can lead to muscle ... Read More

Qualities of calf pens

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Warm and draft-free: Provide thermal support to prevent cold stress. Good drainage Good ventilation Vermin free Insulation: Focus on nesting properties of calf bedding. Appropriately ... Read More

Parts of cattle dip

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Plunge/dipping Tank: A narrow channel where animals walk, immersing them in progressively deeper liquid until fully submerged (except for their heads to breathe). The channel ... Read More

Factors to consider when designing dip

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Cattle dip Cattle dips are types of treatment that involve immersing cattle in a solution that contain chemicals or natural substances that kill or repel ... Read More

UACE S101 General Paper section B: Comprehension story 1

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With the financial meltdown taking toll on most world economies, one question that has been posed by financial experts relates to relevancy of the cooperative ... Read More