Category: Chemistry

Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alkyl halides

07/10/2021 0

Tertiary alkylhalides in presence of  hot solution of  excess alcohol and  potassium hydroxide undergo elimination reaction to form alkenes. The mechanism is described as  E1 ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from primary alkyl halides

07/10/2021 0

Preparation of alkenes from primary alkyl halides Primary alkyl halide react with hot solution of excess alcohol and potassium hydroxide to form alkenes. the mechanism ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alcohols

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Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alcohols Tertiary alcohols react with hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to  give alkenes. The mechanism is described as E1 ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from primary alcohols

07/09/2021 0

Primary alcohol react with hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to form alkenes. The mechanism is referred to as elimination bimolecular(E2) because water molecule is ... Read More

Polymerization of dienes

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Polymerization of dienes Alkenes with conjugated double bond undergo polymerization to form polyalkenes with double bonds Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

Ozonolysis (reaction of ozone with alkenes)

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Ozonolysis (reaction of ozone with alkenes) Ozone reacts with alkene to form unstable ozonide that is reduced by zinc in presence of hydrochloric acid to ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen bromide in presence of a peroxide

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Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen bromide in presence of a peroxide In presence of a peroxide, alkenes react with HBr by free radial mechanisms; but ... Read More

Reaction of alkene with water

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Reaction of alkene with water. The reaction is catalyzed by  an acid sulphuric acid or phosphoric acid. Alcohols are produced Example 1 Ethene reacts with ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with halogens in presence of water.

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Reaction of alkenes with halogens in presence of water. The reaction is carried out by bubbling alkenes through aqueous halogens. Example  Propene reacts with chlorine ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen halides (HX ; X = Cl, Br, I)

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Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen halides (HX ; X = Cl, Br, I) The reaction is carried out by bubbling HX through alkenes. Example 1 ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with halogens

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Reaction of alkenes with halogens Halogens add across a double bond to form dihalogeno compounds. The reaction is carried out in an inert solvent like ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with alkaline KMnO4 (potassium manganate) (VII) solution

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Reaction of alkenes with alkaline KMnO4 solution Dilute alkaline KMnO4 solution convert alkenes into compound called GLYCOLS (dihydroxyl alcohols) Please Subscribe to promote this website. ... Read More

Reduction of alkenes

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Reduction of alkenes They are reduced by hydrogen in presence of catalysts; nickel or platnum  to alkenes Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

Rules for naming alkanes or nomenclature of alkanes

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(a) Names of straight chain isomers alkanes Straight chain isomers are named according to the number of carbon atoms in the chain. (a) Naming branched ... Read More

What is alkyl groups?

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An alkyl group is an alkane less one hydrogen atom. Examples CH4                       Methane        CH3- methyl  group CH3CH3                Ethyl        ... Read More

Names of first ten straight chain alkanes

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Names of first ten straight chain alkanes Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is valuable Thank ... Read More

Types of Isomerism in organic chemistry

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Types of isomerism Structural isomerism Optical isomerism Structural isomerism Here compounds differ in arrangement of atoms in a compound. (a) Chain isomerism: compound have the ... Read More

What is isomerism?

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what is isomerism? Isomerism is the existence of compound with the same molecular formulae but different arrangement of atoms in a compound. Please Subscribe to ... Read More

Dehydration of alcohol

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Dehydration of alcohol Alcohols are dehydrated by hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to form alkenes. The mechanisms depend on the class of alcohols. Primary ... Read More

Oxidation of alcohols

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Oxidation of alcohols Alcohols are burnt in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. Due to production of heat on combustion, alcohols are used ... Read More

formation of alkylhalides from alcohols

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Formation of alkyl halides from alcohols Alcohols react with a variety of reagents to yield alkyl halides. The most commonly used reagents are hydrogen halides ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with acid anhydride to form esters.

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Alcohols react with acid anhydride to form esters Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with acid halides to form esters.

07/09/2021 0

Acid halides react with alcohols to form esters. Example Ethanoyl chloride reacts with methanol to form methylethanoate Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with carboxylic acids to form esters

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Alcohols react with carboxylic acids in the presence of a mineral acid (phosphoric or sulphuric acid) to form esters. However, this is not a good ... Read More

Formation of ethers from alcohols

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Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is valuable Thank you so much Read More

Industrial preparation of alcohols

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  Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is valuable Thank you so much Read More

Explain the variations of melting points of chlorides of period 3 elements

06/20/2021 1

Physical properties of chlorides of period 3 elements These are formed by reacting the elements with chlorine gas and the physical properties of their chlorides ... Read More

Explain the variations of boiling points of chlorides of period period 3 elements

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Boiling points of chlorides of period 3 elements The table below shows the boiling points of the chlorides of period 3 elements. Element Na Mg ... Read More

Genotype

06/05/2021 0

Genotype This is the genetical constitution of an organism i.e. the particular set alleles, leading to observable characteristics Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

Parts of the kidney

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Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comments are highly welcome Thank you so much Read More

Uses of proteins in the body

06/05/2021 0

Uses of proteins in the body Make up structures, e.g., collagen make up connective tissues. Make up enzymes such as catalyze and amylase. Are constituent ... Read More

State the laws of electromagnetic induction.

05/29/2021 0

Laws of electromagnetic induction.  Faraday’s law states that the magnitude of the e.m.f induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change ... Read More

Discuss the factors which affect the current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer 

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The factors which affect the current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer  include Strength of magnet, current sensitivity is proportional to the strength of the ... Read More

Principles of separation of mixtures by steam distillation

05/29/2021 3

  Principles of separation of mixtures by steam distillation The substance to be separated by steam distillation should be volatile, has relatively high molecular mass ... Read More

What is steam distillation

05/29/2021 0

Steam distillation  is a technique of separating a volatile liquid/substance that is immiscible with water from nonvolatile components at temperature below its boiling point by ... Read More

Advantages of steam distillation

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Advantages of steam distillation Distillation occurs at a temperature below the boiling point of the component and that of water. This is useful if the ... Read More

What is negative deviation from Raoult’s law

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Negative deviation Negative deviations from Raoult's law occurs when the vapor pressure of solution is lower than that of an ideal solution of the same ... Read More

What positive deviation from Raoult’s law

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Positive deviation from Raoult's  occurs when the vapor pressure of solution is higher than of ideal solution of the same composition Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

what is an azeotrope?

05/29/2021 0

An azeotrope is a mixture which has the same composition as it vapor as in liquid and boils at constant temperature. Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

what is an Ideal solution?

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Ideal solution An ideal solution is one that obeys Raoult’s law. Solutions that obey Raoult’s law have uniform forces of attraction between like and unlike ... Read More

Raoult’s Law

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Raoult’s Law The partial pressure of any component at a given temperature in a mixture varies linearly with its concentration. Or The vapor pressure of ... Read More

Explain the effect of nonvolatile solute on the vapor pressure and boiling point of a liquid

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Effect of nonvolatile solute on vapor pressure and boiling point of a liquid. Nonvolatile solute reduces the vapor pressure of  a solvent because the nonvolatile ... Read More

Factors affecting physical state of a substance.

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Factors affecting physical state of substance include temperature and pressure. Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment ... Read More

What is critical point

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Critical point is temperature and pressure beyond which a liquid and vapor are indistinguishable. Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with ... Read More

what is meant by a triple point?

05/29/2021 0

A triple point is temperature and pressure at the liquid, solid and vapor states are in equilibrium Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

What is a phase of substance?

05/29/2021 0

A phase is a homogenous physical state into which a substance can exist; for example, solid, liquid and vapor/gas   Please Subscribe to promote this ... Read More

Reasons why eutectic mixtures are not compound

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Reasons why eutectic mixtures are not compound their composition varies with pressure can be separated by other physical methods as distillation and evaporation to dryness ... Read More

Similarities between eutectic mixture and pure compound

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Similarities between eutectic mixture and pure compound both have a sharp freezing point at constant pressure Have the same composition in liquid and liquid Please ... Read More

Eutectic mixtures

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Eutectic mixtures These are mixtures which at constant pressure freeze at constant temperature to give a solid of the same composition. Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

What is endothermic reaction?

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Endothermic reaction is a reaction in which heat s liberated Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment ... Read More

What is exothermic reaction?

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Exothermic reaction is a reaction in which heat is liberated   Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your ... Read More

State Hess’ law of thermodynamics

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Hess' law state that the enthalpy change of a reaction is independent of the route followed from the reactants to the products.   Please Subscribe ... Read More

Energy/Enthalpy of hydration

05/28/2021 0

Energy/Enthalpy of hydration This refers to the enthalpy change when 1mole of gaseous ions is hydrated. e.g. Na+(g) + aq → Na+(aq)                                      ∆HmӨ(298K) = -406 ... Read More

Energy/Enthalpy of solution

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Energy/Enthalpy of solution This refers to the enthalpy change for the formation of an infinitely dilute solution of 1 mole of salt. NaCl(s) +aq→ Na+(aq) ... Read More

Lattice enthalpy/energy

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Lattice enthalpy/energy This is the name given to the enthalpy change for the reaction in which 1mole of crystalline solid is formed from its component ... Read More

Electron affinity

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  Enthalpy of electron affinity: refers to the enthalpy change for formation of free gaseous anions from1mole of free gaseous atoms. Cl(g) + e → ... Read More

Enthalpy of ionization

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Enthalpy of ionization: refers to enthalpy change for conversion of gaseous atoms into free gaseous ions, e.g. Na(g) → Na+(g)+ e  ∆HmӨ(298K) = +502kJmol-1 Factors ... Read More

Enthalpy of atomization

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Enthalpy of atomization: refers to the enthalpy change for the formation of 1mole of gaseous atoms from an element in its standard state C(s)(graphite) → ... Read More

Enthalpy of formation of hydrated ions

05/28/2021 0

Enthalpy of formation of hydrated ions; This refers to enhtalpy change of  the formations of 1mole of hydrated ions from an element in its standard ... Read More

What is meant by Enthalpy of formation of a compounds

05/28/2021 0

Enthalpy of formation of compounds: The standard molar enthalpy of formation of a compound is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of the compound is ... Read More