Category: Chemistry

Aldol condensations of carbonyl compounds

09/19/2021 0

Aldol condensations of carbonyl compounds Carbonyl compounds which contain at least one alpha hydrogen, react in presence of alkali to form hydroxyl carbonyl compounds called ... Read More

Cannizzaro reaction of aldehydes

09/19/2021 0

Cannizzaro reaction of aldehydes This is a reaction between sodium hydroxide solution and aldehydes with no α-hydrogen It’s  a self-oxidation – reduction reaction Examples Please ... Read More

Distinguishing between aldehydes and ketone

09/19/2021 0

Reagent Observation Aldehydes Ketones Fehling’s solution Brown ppt No observable change Tollen’s reagent or ammoniacal silver nitrate   Black ppt or silver mirror   No ... Read More

Reaction methyl ketone with iodine

09/19/2021 0

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Reaction of benzene with chlorine in the presence of u.v-light

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Reaction of benzene with alkenes

09/19/2021 0

Reaction of benzene with alkenes In the presence of a mineral acid benzene react with alkenes to form alkylbenzene. Please Subscribe to promote this website. ... Read More

Reaction of benzene with alkanoylhalides

09/19/2021 0

The reaction requires an electron carrier and produces ketones Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment ... Read More

Reaction of benzene with alkyl halides like chloromethane

09/19/2021 0

  This is a reaction of benzene with an alkyl halide to give an alkyl benzene. The reaction is catalysed by electron carriers such as ... Read More

Reaction of benzene with halogens, chlorine, bromine, iodine

09/19/2021 0

Reaction of benzene with halogens This requires the use of electron carriers (AlCl3, FCl3) as catalysts. The electron carrier is usually a halide of iron ... Read More

Sulphonation of benzene or reaction of benzene with sulphuric acid

09/19/2021 0

Sulphonation of benzene is the introduction of the sulphonic group (-SO3H) on to the benzene ring. It’s done by heating benzene with concentrated suphuric acid. A ... Read More

Nitration of benzene or reaction of benzene with nitric acid

09/19/2021 0

Nitration of benzene This is the introduction of the nitro group on the benzene ring using a hot mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and concentrated ... Read More

Preparation of phenol form cumene or 2-phenylpropane

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Distinguishing between primary, secondary and tertiary amines

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Distinguishing between primary, secondary and tertiary amines Reagent: nitrous acid (NaNO2, HCl (0-50C)) Observation (i) Primary amine: effervescence Equation RNH2 + NaNO2 + 2HCl     ... Read More

Explain why phenylamine is a weaker base than ammonia and ammonia is a weaker base than dimethylamine

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Solution Trimethylamine is a stronger base than ammonia because the methyl groups donate electrons to the nitrogen atom. This increases the density of alone pair ... Read More

Basic trendsof amines

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Bacisity of amines   Like ammonia, amines dissolve in water to form alkaline solution. RNH2  + H2O ↔ RN+H3 + OH-(aq)   The strength of ... Read More

Variation of boiling and melting points of amines

09/19/2021 0

Variation of boiling and melting points of amines Amines are polar compounds and therefore have higher melting and boiling points than non-polar compounds of similar ... Read More

Reaction of terminal alkyne with ammoniacal silver nitrate or copper 1 nitrate

09/19/2021 0

Alkynes with a triple bond at the end of the chain react with ammoniacal silver nitrate or ammoniacal copper I chloride to form white precipitate ... Read More

Reaction of ethyne with water

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The reaction ethyne with water is catalysed by mercury (II) sulphate and dilute sulphuric acid. Carbonyl compounds are formed. Example Mechanism Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

Reduction of alkynes

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Preparation of ethyne from ethanol

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Preparation of ethyne from 1, 2-dibromoethane

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Preparation of ethyne from carbon

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Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alkyl halides

07/10/2021 0

Tertiary alkylhalides in presence of  hot solution of  excess alcohol and  potassium hydroxide undergo elimination reaction to form alkenes. The mechanism is described as  E1 ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from primary alkyl halides

07/10/2021 0

Preparation of alkenes from primary alkyl halides Primary alkyl halide react with hot solution of excess alcohol and potassium hydroxide to form alkenes. the mechanism ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alcohols

07/10/2021 0

Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alcohols Tertiary alcohols react with hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to  give alkenes. The mechanism is described as E1 ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from primary alcohols

07/09/2021 0

Primary alcohol react with hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to form alkenes. The mechanism is referred to as elimination bimolecular(E2) because water molecule is ... Read More

Polymerization of dienes

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Polymerization of dienes Alkenes with conjugated double bond undergo polymerization to form polyalkenes with double bonds Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

Ozonolysis (reaction of ozone with alkenes)

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Ozonolysis (reaction of ozone with alkenes) Ozone reacts with alkene to form unstable ozonide that is reduced by zinc in presence of hydrochloric acid to ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen bromide in presence of a peroxide

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Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen bromide in presence of a peroxide In presence of a peroxide, alkenes react with HBr by free radial mechanisms; but ... Read More

Reaction of alkene with water

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Reaction of alkene with water. The reaction is catalyzed by  an acid sulphuric acid or phosphoric acid. Alcohols are produced Example 1 Ethene reacts with ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with halogens in presence of water.

07/09/2021 0

Reaction of alkenes with halogens in presence of water. The reaction is carried out by bubbling alkenes through aqueous halogens. Example  Propene reacts with chlorine ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen halides (HX ; X = Cl, Br, I)

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Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen halides (HX ; X = Cl, Br, I) The reaction is carried out by bubbling HX through alkenes. Example 1 ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with halogens

07/09/2021 0

Reaction of alkenes with halogens Halogens add across a double bond to form dihalogeno compounds. The reaction is carried out in an inert solvent like ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with alkaline KMnO4 (potassium manganate) (VII) solution

07/09/2021 0

Reaction of alkenes with alkaline KMnO4 solution Dilute alkaline KMnO4 solution convert alkenes into compound called GLYCOLS (dihydroxyl alcohols) Please Subscribe to promote this website. ... Read More

Reduction of alkenes

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Reduction of alkenes They are reduced by hydrogen in presence of catalysts; nickel or platnum  to alkenes Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

Rules for naming alkanes or nomenclature of alkanes

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(a) Names of straight chain isomers alkanes Straight chain isomers are named according to the number of carbon atoms in the chain. (a) Naming branched ... Read More

What is alkyl groups?

07/09/2021 0

An alkyl group is an alkane less one hydrogen atom. Examples CH4                       Methane        CH3- methyl  group CH3CH3                Ethyl        ... Read More

Names of first ten straight chain alkanes

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Names of first ten straight chain alkanes Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is valuable Thank ... Read More

Types of Isomerism in organic chemistry

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Types of isomerism Structural isomerism Optical isomerism Structural isomerism Here compounds differ in arrangement of atoms in a compound. (a) Chain isomerism: compound have the ... Read More

What is isomerism?

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what is isomerism? Isomerism is the existence of compound with the same molecular formulae but different arrangement of atoms in a compound. Please Subscribe to ... Read More

Dehydration of alcohol

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Dehydration of alcohol Alcohols are dehydrated by hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to form alkenes. The mechanisms depend on the class of alcohols. Primary ... Read More

Oxidation of alcohols

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Oxidation of alcohols Alcohols are burnt in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. Due to production of heat on combustion, alcohols are used ... Read More

formation of alkylhalides from alcohols

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Formation of alkyl halides from alcohols Alcohols react with a variety of reagents to yield alkyl halides. The most commonly used reagents are hydrogen halides ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with acid anhydride to form esters.

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Alcohols react with acid anhydride to form esters Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with acid halides to form esters.

07/09/2021 1

Acid halides react with alcohols to form esters. Example Ethanoyl chloride reacts with methanol to form methylethanoate Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with carboxylic acids to form esters

07/09/2021 0

Alcohols react with carboxylic acids in the presence of a mineral acid (phosphoric or sulphuric acid) to form esters. However, this is not a good ... Read More

Formation of ethers from alcohols

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Industrial preparation of alcohols

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Explain the variations of melting points of chlorides of period 3 elements

06/20/2021 1

Physical properties of chlorides of period 3 elements These are formed by reacting the elements with chlorine gas and the physical properties of their chlorides ... Read More

Explain the variations of boiling points of chlorides of period period 3 elements

06/20/2021 0

Boiling points of chlorides of period 3 elements The table below shows the boiling points of the chlorides of period 3 elements. Element Na Mg ... Read More

Genotype

06/05/2021 2

Genotype This is the genetical constitution of an organism i.e. the particular set alleles, leading to observable characteristics Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

Parts of the kidney

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Uses of proteins in the body

06/05/2021 0

Uses of proteins in the body Make up structures, e.g., collagen make up connective tissues. Make up enzymes such as catalyze and amylase. Are constituent ... Read More

State the laws of electromagnetic induction.

05/29/2021 0

Laws of electromagnetic induction.  Faraday’s law states that the magnitude of the e.m.f induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change ... Read More

Discuss the factors which affect the current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer 

05/29/2021 0

The factors which affect the current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer  include Strength of magnet, current sensitivity is proportional to the strength of the ... Read More

Principles of separation of mixtures by steam distillation

05/29/2021 3

  Principles of separation of mixtures by steam distillation The substance to be separated by steam distillation should be volatile, has relatively high molecular mass ... Read More

What is steam distillation

05/29/2021 0

Steam distillation  is a technique of separating a volatile liquid/substance that is immiscible with water from nonvolatile components at temperature below its boiling point by ... Read More

Advantages of steam distillation

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Advantages of steam distillation Distillation occurs at a temperature below the boiling point of the component and that of water. This is useful if the ... Read More

What is negative deviation from Raoult’s law

05/29/2021 0

Negative deviation Negative deviations from Raoult's law occurs when the vapor pressure of solution is lower than that of an ideal solution of the same ... Read More

What positive deviation from Raoult’s law

05/29/2021 0

Positive deviation from Raoult's  occurs when the vapor pressure of solution is higher than of ideal solution of the same composition Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More