Category: A-level physical chemistry

Properties of Gama, beta and alpha particles

08/17/2020 1

Types of radiations There are three types of radiations given by radioactive substances. They all cause certain substances, such as zinc sulphide, to luminesce, and ... Read More

Properties of Gama particle

08/17/2020 0

properties of gamma particles These uncharged rays are similar to X-rays they have high penetrating power; being able to pass through 0.1m of metal. have ... Read More

Properties of beta particles

08/17/2020 0

Properties of beta particle negatively charged deflected toward positive electric field have medium penetrating power ionize gases they pass through Sponsored by The Science Foundation ... Read More

Properties of Alpha particles

08/17/2020 0

properties alpha particles positively charged helium ions ionize gases they pass through deflected towards negative electric field have low penetrating power Read More

Methods of separating azeotropic mixture

08/17/2020 0

Adding a substance that reacts and removes one component. e.g. CaO reacts and removes water from azeotrope of ethanol and water distillation with a third ... Read More

Reasons why azeotropes are not compounds

08/17/2020 0

they can be separated by physical means such as adsorption, fractional crystallization components react independently for example water in rectified sprit react with calcium oxide ... Read More

Thermodynamics part 1 of 2 By Dr Bbosa Science

04/16/2020 0

Defines energy terms, combustion, electron affinity, neutralization, formation, lattice energy Hess law, enthalpy diagrams, and energy diagram and their calculations. Read More

Gas laws

02/20/2020 0

Physical behavior of gases Kinetic theory This is useful in accounting for the known properties of gases, liquids and solids. The ideas underlying the kinetic ... Read More

Distribution law/partition coefficient

02/20/2020 0

Equilibrium between immiscible liquids Distribution Law: States that a solute distributes itself between immiscible solvents such that a constant temperature and pressure the ratio of ... Read More

Colligative properties

02/19/2020 2

Colligative properties These are behaviors of solution which depend on the number of nonvolatile dissolved particles (Ions, molecules, atoms, etc.) other than the chemical nature ... Read More

Immiscible liquids and steam distillation

02/18/2020 0

Immiscible liquids These are liquids that do not form a uniform solution but separate into two layers when mixed. For these liquids, the total vapor ... Read More

Vapour pressure, Raoult’s law and fractional distillation (A-level)

02/18/2020 0

Vapor Pressure All liquids exhibit tendency for evaporation at their surface.  For evaporation to occur molecules at the surface acquire kinetic energy of liquid molecules ... Read More

Phase equilibrium

02/15/2020 0

Phase equilibrium A phase is a homogenous physical state into which a substance can exist; for example, solid, liquid and vapor/gas Factors affecting the phase ... Read More

Electro-chemical conductivity

02/15/2020 0

Electro-chemical conductivity Resistance R of electrolytic solution This is the drag force experienced by ions as they migrate towards the respective electrodes. Resistance of an ... Read More


02/14/2020 1

Electrolysis This is the decomposition of an ionic compound in molten or solution form to its constituent elements. Mechanism of electrolysis Consider electrolysis of molten ... Read More

Electrochemical cells

02/14/2020 3

           Electrochemical cells When a strip of metal is placed in a solution of its ions, the metal atoms tend to ionize; ... Read More

Equilibrium in solution, Ka, Kb, Kw, Kh, Ksp,Kin

02/13/2020 0

Ionic equilibrium Ionization of a weak acid A weak acid is one that is partially ionized in water. For instance a weak acid HA will ... Read More

Chemical equilibrium, Kc and Kp, factors affecting chemicals equilibrium

02/11/2020 0

Chemical equilibrium It is a branch of physical chemistry that deals with reversible reactions or reactions that proceed in either direction. For example, when steam ... Read More

Thermodynamics (A-level)

02/10/2020 0

Thermodynamics (A-level) Deals with energy changes in chemical reactions In most chemical reactions there is an associated energy change, shown by the evolution of heat ... Read More

Chemical Kinetics (A-level)

02/08/2020 0

Chemical kinetics It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the measurement of reaction velocities/rates and determination of mechanisms by which reactants are converted ... Read More