Category: Inorganic chemistry

Explain the variations of melting points of chlorides of period 3 elements

06/20/2021 1

Physical properties of chlorides of period 3 elements These are formed by reacting the elements with chlorine gas and the physical properties of their chlorides ... Read More

Explain the variations of boiling points of chlorides of period period 3 elements

06/20/2021 0

Boiling points of chlorides of period 3 elements The table below shows the boiling points of the chlorides of period 3 elements. Element Na Mg ... Read More

Parts of the kidney

06/05/2021 0

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Uses of proteins in the body

06/05/2021 0

Uses of proteins in the body Make up structures, e.g., collagen make up connective tissues. Make up enzymes such as catalyze and amylase. Are constituent ... Read More

State the laws of electromagnetic induction.

05/29/2021 0

Laws of electromagnetic induction.  Faraday’s law states that the magnitude of the e.m.f induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change ... Read More

Discuss the factors which affect the current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer 

05/29/2021 0

The factors which affect the current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer  include Strength of magnet, current sensitivity is proportional to the strength of the ... Read More

Principles of separation of mixtures by steam distillation

05/29/2021 3

  Principles of separation of mixtures by steam distillation The substance to be separated by steam distillation should be volatile, has relatively high molecular mass ... Read More

What is steam distillation

05/29/2021 0

Steam distillation  is a technique of separating a volatile liquid/substance that is immiscible with water from nonvolatile components at temperature below its boiling point by ... Read More

Advantages of steam distillation

05/29/2021 0

Advantages of steam distillation Distillation occurs at a temperature below the boiling point of the component and that of water. This is useful if the ... Read More

What is negative deviation from Raoult’s law

05/29/2021 0

Negative deviation Negative deviations from Raoult's law occurs when the vapor pressure of solution is lower than that of an ideal solution of the same ... Read More

What positive deviation from Raoult’s law

05/29/2021 0

Positive deviation from Raoult's  occurs when the vapor pressure of solution is higher than of ideal solution of the same composition Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

what is an azeotrope?

05/29/2021 0

An azeotrope is a mixture which has the same composition as it vapor as in liquid and boils at constant temperature. Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

what is an Ideal solution?

05/29/2021 0

Ideal solution An ideal solution is one that obeys Raoult’s law. Solutions that obey Raoult’s law have uniform forces of attraction between like and unlike ... Read More

Raoult’s Law

05/29/2021 0

Raoult’s Law The partial pressure of any component at a given temperature in a mixture varies linearly with its concentration. Or The vapor pressure of ... Read More

Explain the effect of nonvolatile solute on the vapor pressure and boiling point of a liquid

05/29/2021 0

Effect of nonvolatile solute on vapor pressure and boiling point of a liquid. Nonvolatile solute reduces the vapor pressure of  a solvent because the nonvolatile ... Read More

Factors affecting physical state of a substance.

05/29/2021 0

Factors affecting physical state of substance include temperature and pressure. Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment ... Read More

What is critical point

05/29/2021 0

Critical point is temperature and pressure beyond which a liquid and vapor are indistinguishable. Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with ... Read More

what is meant by a triple point?

05/29/2021 0

A triple point is temperature and pressure at the liquid, solid and vapor states are in equilibrium Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

What is a phase of substance?

05/29/2021 0

A phase is a homogenous physical state into which a substance can exist; for example, solid, liquid and vapor/gas   Please Subscribe to promote this ... Read More

Reasons why eutectic mixtures are not compound

05/29/2021 0

Reasons why eutectic mixtures are not compound their composition varies with pressure can be separated by other physical methods as distillation and evaporation to dryness ... Read More

Similarities between eutectic mixture and pure compound

05/29/2021 0

Similarities between eutectic mixture and pure compound both have a sharp freezing point at constant pressure Have the same composition in liquid and liquid Please ... Read More

Eutectic mixtures

05/29/2021 0

Eutectic mixtures These are mixtures which at constant pressure freeze at constant temperature to give a solid of the same composition. Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

What is endothermic reaction?

05/29/2021 0

Endothermic reaction is a reaction in which heat s liberated Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment ... Read More

What is exothermic reaction?

05/29/2021 0

Exothermic reaction is a reaction in which heat is liberated   Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your ... Read More

State Hess’ law of thermodynamics

05/29/2021 0

Hess' law state that the enthalpy change of a reaction is independent of the route followed from the reactants to the products.   Please Subscribe ... Read More

Energy/Enthalpy of hydration

05/28/2021 0

Energy/Enthalpy of hydration This refers to the enthalpy change when 1mole of gaseous ions is hydrated. e.g. Na+(g) + aq → Na+(aq)                                      ∆HmӨ(298K) = -406 ... Read More

Energy/Enthalpy of solution

05/28/2021 0

Energy/Enthalpy of solution This refers to the enthalpy change for the formation of an infinitely dilute solution of 1 mole of salt. NaCl(s) +aq→ Na+(aq) ... Read More

Lattice enthalpy/energy

05/28/2021 0

Lattice enthalpy/energy This is the name given to the enthalpy change for the reaction in which 1mole of crystalline solid is formed from its component ... Read More

Electron affinity

05/28/2021 0

  Enthalpy of electron affinity: refers to the enthalpy change for formation of free gaseous anions from1mole of free gaseous atoms. Cl(g) + e → ... Read More

Enthalpy of ionization

05/28/2021 0

Enthalpy of ionization: refers to enthalpy change for conversion of gaseous atoms into free gaseous ions, e.g. Na(g) → Na+(g)+ e  ∆HmӨ(298K) = +502kJmol-1 Factors ... Read More

Enthalpy of atomization

05/28/2021 0

Enthalpy of atomization: refers to the enthalpy change for the formation of 1mole of gaseous atoms from an element in its standard state C(s)(graphite) → ... Read More

Enthalpy of formation of hydrated ions

05/28/2021 0

Enthalpy of formation of hydrated ions; This refers to enhtalpy change of  the formations of 1mole of hydrated ions from an element in its standard ... Read More

What is meant by Enthalpy of formation of a compounds

05/28/2021 0

Enthalpy of formation of compounds: The standard molar enthalpy of formation of a compound is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of the compound is ... Read More

Enthalpy of combustion of sulphur or carbon

05/28/2021 0

Experimental method for finding enthalpy of combustion using a calorimetric bomb. This method is suitable for determination of enthalpy of combustion of carbon, Sulphur or ... Read More

Experiment to determine the enthalpy of combustion of ethanol

05/28/2021 0

Experimental method for finding enthalpy of combustion a liquid fuel such as ethanol The figure below shows a simple method for obtaining approximate value for ... Read More

Define enthalpy of combustion.

05/28/2021 0

Enthalpy of combustions: The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of a substance is the enthalpy changes when 1 mole of it is completely burn in ... Read More

Applications of partition/distribution law

05/28/2021 0

Applications of partition law solvent extraction study of complexes chromatography   Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your ... Read More

What is partition/distribution coefficient

05/28/2021 0

Partition Coefficient or distribution constant is ratio of the concentration of the solute in immiscible solvents at equilibrium. Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

Limitations or conditions for partition /distribution law

05/28/2021 0

Limitations or conditions for partition /distribution law Solute should be in the same molecular state in both solvents Temperature should be constant None of the ... Read More

What is distribution or partition law?

05/28/2021 0

Distribution Law: States that a solute distributes itself between immiscible solvents such that a constant temperature and pressure the ratio of its concentrations in the ... Read More

what is acid base indicator?

05/28/2021 0

Acid bas indicator is a substance that changes color according to hydrogen ion concentration. Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with ... Read More

What is a buffer?

05/28/2021 0

Buffers These are solutions that resist changes in pH on addition of small amounts of either the acid or base. Buffers are usually made of ... Read More

What is a weak base?

05/28/2021 0

A weak base is a substance that partially ionize in water to produce hydroxyl ions as the only negatively charged ions.   Please Subscribe to ... Read More

What is a weak acid?

05/28/2021 0

It is an acid that partially ionize in water to produce hydrogen ions as the only positive ions Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

what is pH?

05/28/2021 0

pH is negative log of hydrogen ion concentration in moles per decimeter cubed   Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with ... Read More

What is osmotic pressure?

05/23/2021 1

The osmotic pressure of the solution is the minimum pressure which must be applied to the solution to balance the tendency of the solvent to ... Read More

what is osmosis?

05/23/2021 0

Osmosis is the movement of the solvent molecules from the region where they are highly concentrated to the region of their low concentration through a ... Read More

Lands Berger’s method of determining boiling point elevation constant  of a solvent

05/23/2021 0

Lands Berger’s method of determining boiling point elevation constant  of a solvent The solvent of boiling point, T0, is boiled in a separate flask and ... Read More

Cottrell’s method for determining the boiling point elevation elevation constant.

05/23/2021 1

Determination of boiling point elevation constant The main difficult for finding molecular masses by this method arises from super heating of the liquid above its ... Read More

Determinations of freezing point constant of a solvent using Rast’s method.

05/23/2021 0

Rast’s method of determining the freezing point constant of a solvent This is based on the use of melted camphor as a solvent because it ... Read More

Determination of freezing point depression constant using Beckmann’s procedure

05/23/2021 0

Determination of freezing point depression constant using Beckmann’s procedure A given mass of the solvent (m1) is placed in glass tube A into which a ... Read More

Limitation of the Colligative properties

05/23/2021 0

Limitation of the Colligative properties A correct value for relative molecular mass (that is a value corresponding to the actual molecular formula) is obtained under ... Read More

State examples of colligative properties.

05/23/2021 0

Colligative properties include: Freezing point depression elevation of boiling points lowering of the vapor pressure osmotic pressure   Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

What are colligative properties

05/23/2021 0

Colligative properties These are behaviors of solution which depend on the number of nonvolatile dissolved particles (Ions, molecules, atoms etc.) other than the chemical nature ... Read More

What is Ideal gas equation?

05/23/2021 0

Ideal gas equations  is PV =nRT where P = pressure of a gas V = volume of a gas R= gas constant T = temperature ... Read More

What is room temperature and pressure

05/23/2021 0

Room temperature and pressure (r.t.p) Temperature = 278K or 250C Pressure = 760mmHg or 1 atmosphere or 101325 atmospheres At r.t.p; Molar volume of a ... Read More

What is standard pressure and temperature (s.t.p)

05/23/2021 0

standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p) Standard temperature = 273K or 00C Standard pressure = 760mmHg or 1 atmosphere or 101325 Pascal Molar volume of a ... Read More

State Charles’s law of gases

05/23/2021 0

    Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is valuable Thank you so much Read More

State Boyles law

05/23/2021 0

Boyles laws of gases Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is valuable Thank you so much Read More

What is Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes

05/23/2021 0

Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes States that “when gases combine together at a given temperature and pressure, the do so in volumes which bear ... Read More