Category: Organic chemistry

Aldol condensations of carbonyl compounds

09/19/2021 0

Aldol condensations of carbonyl compounds Carbonyl compounds which contain at least one alpha hydrogen, react in presence of alkali to form hydroxyl carbonyl compounds called ... Read More

Cannizzaro reaction of aldehydes

09/19/2021 0

Cannizzaro reaction of aldehydes This is a reaction between sodium hydroxide solution and aldehydes with no α-hydrogen It’s  a self-oxidation – reduction reaction Examples Please ... Read More

Distinguishing between aldehydes and ketone

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Reagent Observation Aldehydes Ketones Fehling’s solution Brown ppt No observable change Tollen’s reagent or ammoniacal silver nitrate   Black ppt or silver mirror   No ... Read More

Reaction methyl ketone with iodine

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Reaction of benzene with chlorine in the presence of u.v-light

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Reaction of benzene with alkenes

09/19/2021 0

Reaction of benzene with alkenes In the presence of a mineral acid benzene react with alkenes to form alkylbenzene. Please Subscribe to promote this website. ... Read More

Reaction of benzene with alkanoylhalides

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The reaction requires an electron carrier and produces ketones Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment ... Read More

Reaction of benzene with alkyl halides like chloromethane

09/19/2021 0

  This is a reaction of benzene with an alkyl halide to give an alkyl benzene. The reaction is catalysed by electron carriers such as ... Read More

Reaction of benzene with halogens, chlorine, bromine, iodine

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Reaction of benzene with halogens This requires the use of electron carriers (AlCl3, FCl3) as catalysts. The electron carrier is usually a halide of iron ... Read More

Sulphonation of benzene or reaction of benzene with sulphuric acid

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Sulphonation of benzene is the introduction of the sulphonic group (-SO3H) on to the benzene ring. It’s done by heating benzene with concentrated suphuric acid. A ... Read More

Nitration of benzene or reaction of benzene with nitric acid

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Nitration of benzene This is the introduction of the nitro group on the benzene ring using a hot mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and concentrated ... Read More

Preparation of phenol form cumene or 2-phenylpropane

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Distinguishing between primary, secondary and tertiary amines

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Distinguishing between primary, secondary and tertiary amines Reagent: nitrous acid (NaNO2, HCl (0-50C)) Observation (i) Primary amine: effervescence Equation RNH2 + NaNO2 + 2HCl     ... Read More

Explain why phenylamine is a weaker base than ammonia and ammonia is a weaker base than dimethylamine

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Solution Trimethylamine is a stronger base than ammonia because the methyl groups donate electrons to the nitrogen atom. This increases the density of alone pair ... Read More

Basic trendsof amines

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Bacisity of amines   Like ammonia, amines dissolve in water to form alkaline solution. RNH2  + H2O ↔ RN+H3 + OH-(aq)   The strength of ... Read More

Variation of boiling and melting points of amines

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Variation of boiling and melting points of amines Amines are polar compounds and therefore have higher melting and boiling points than non-polar compounds of similar ... Read More

Reaction of terminal alkyne with ammoniacal silver nitrate or copper 1 nitrate

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Alkynes with a triple bond at the end of the chain react with ammoniacal silver nitrate or ammoniacal copper I chloride to form white precipitate ... Read More

Reaction of ethyne with water

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The reaction ethyne with water is catalysed by mercury (II) sulphate and dilute sulphuric acid. Carbonyl compounds are formed. Example Mechanism Please Subscribe to promote ... Read More

Reduction of alkynes

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Preparation of ethyne from ethanol

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Preparation of ethyne from 1, 2-dibromoethane

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Preparation of ethyne from carbon

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Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alkyl halides

07/10/2021 0

Tertiary alkylhalides in presence of  hot solution of  excess alcohol and  potassium hydroxide undergo elimination reaction to form alkenes. The mechanism is described as  E1 ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from primary alkyl halides

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Preparation of alkenes from primary alkyl halides Primary alkyl halide react with hot solution of excess alcohol and potassium hydroxide to form alkenes. the mechanism ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alcohols

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Preparation of alkenes from tertiary alcohols Tertiary alcohols react with hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to  give alkenes. The mechanism is described as E1 ... Read More

Preparation of alkenes from primary alcohols

07/09/2021 0

Primary alcohol react with hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to form alkenes. The mechanism is referred to as elimination bimolecular(E2) because water molecule is ... Read More

Polymerization of dienes

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Polymerization of dienes Alkenes with conjugated double bond undergo polymerization to form polyalkenes with double bonds Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

Ozonolysis (reaction of ozone with alkenes)

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Ozonolysis (reaction of ozone with alkenes) Ozone reacts with alkene to form unstable ozonide that is reduced by zinc in presence of hydrochloric acid to ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen bromide in presence of a peroxide

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Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen bromide in presence of a peroxide In presence of a peroxide, alkenes react with HBr by free radial mechanisms; but ... Read More

Reaction of alkene with water

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Reaction of alkene with water. The reaction is catalyzed by  an acid sulphuric acid or phosphoric acid. Alcohols are produced Example 1 Ethene reacts with ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with halogens in presence of water.

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Reaction of alkenes with halogens in presence of water. The reaction is carried out by bubbling alkenes through aqueous halogens. Example  Propene reacts with chlorine ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen halides (HX ; X = Cl, Br, I)

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Reaction of alkenes with hydrogen halides (HX ; X = Cl, Br, I) The reaction is carried out by bubbling HX through alkenes. Example 1 ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with halogens

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Reaction of alkenes with halogens Halogens add across a double bond to form dihalogeno compounds. The reaction is carried out in an inert solvent like ... Read More

Reaction of alkenes with alkaline KMnO4 (potassium manganate) (VII) solution

07/09/2021 0

Reaction of alkenes with alkaline KMnO4 solution Dilute alkaline KMnO4 solution convert alkenes into compound called GLYCOLS (dihydroxyl alcohols) Please Subscribe to promote this website. ... Read More

Reduction of alkenes

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Reduction of alkenes They are reduced by hydrogen in presence of catalysts; nickel or platnum  to alkenes Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription ... Read More

Rules for naming alkanes or nomenclature of alkanes

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(a) Names of straight chain isomers alkanes Straight chain isomers are named according to the number of carbon atoms in the chain. (a) Naming branched ... Read More

What is alkyl groups?

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An alkyl group is an alkane less one hydrogen atom. Examples CH4                       Methane        CH3- methyl  group CH3CH3                Ethyl        ... Read More

Names of first ten straight chain alkanes

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Names of first ten straight chain alkanes Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is valuable Thank ... Read More

Types of Isomerism in organic chemistry

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Types of isomerism Structural isomerism Optical isomerism Structural isomerism Here compounds differ in arrangement of atoms in a compound. (a) Chain isomerism: compound have the ... Read More

What is isomerism?

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what is isomerism? Isomerism is the existence of compound with the same molecular formulae but different arrangement of atoms in a compound. Please Subscribe to ... Read More

Dehydration of alcohol

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Dehydration of alcohol Alcohols are dehydrated by hot concentrated sulphuric or phosphoric acid to form alkenes. The mechanisms depend on the class of alcohols. Primary ... Read More

Oxidation of alcohols

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Oxidation of alcohols Alcohols are burnt in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. Due to production of heat on combustion, alcohols are used ... Read More

formation of alkylhalides from alcohols

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Formation of alkyl halides from alcohols Alcohols react with a variety of reagents to yield alkyl halides. The most commonly used reagents are hydrogen halides ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with acid anhydride to form esters.

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Alcohols react with acid anhydride to form esters Example Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is free Share with a friend Your comment is ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with acid halides to form esters.

07/09/2021 1

Acid halides react with alcohols to form esters. Example Ethanoyl chloride reacts with methanol to form methylethanoate Please Subscribe to promote this website. Subscription is ... Read More

Reaction of alcohols with carboxylic acids to form esters

07/09/2021 0

Alcohols react with carboxylic acids in the presence of a mineral acid (phosphoric or sulphuric acid) to form esters. However, this is not a good ... Read More

Formation of ethers from alcohols

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Industrial preparation of alcohols

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What is electrode potential

05/22/2021 0

Electrode potential is a potential difference that is set up between a metal and its solution containing metal ions.   Please Subscribe to promote this ... Read More

Rubber monomers, conditon for production of rubber,Vulconization of rubber

08/17/2020 0

Rubber Monomers Important conjugated dienes used in synthetic rubbers include isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), 1,3-butadiene, and chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene).   Condition for the reaction leading to formation of ... Read More

Aromatic or benzene compounds

05/20/2020 2

reaction of benzene with nitric acid, reactions of benzene with sulphuric acid, reactions of benzene with alkyl halide, reaction of benzene with halogen in present ... Read More

Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids

03/03/2020 0

Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids Closely related to carboxylic acids and to each other are a number of chemical families known as functional derivatives of ... Read More

Benzene and its compounds

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Aromatic compounds These include benzene and compounds that resemble benzene in chemical behavior. Benzene Chemical formula: C6H6. Structure Benzene is a cyclic compound with delocalized ... Read More

Soap

03/02/2020 0

Soap and detergents Soap is a mixture of the sodium salt of long-chain fatty acids. Fatty acids are straight-chain carboxylic acid Saponification: is the process ... Read More

Polymerization

03/02/2020 1

Polymerization A polymer is a high molecular mass species consisting of regularly repeating units or chemically similar units, linked by primary covalent bonds. Polymerization is ... Read More

Carboxylic acid or alkanoic acids

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Carboxylic Acids   The carboxylic group is a combination of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group(OH): the name carboxylic group. Nomenclature Their names end ... Read More

Carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones)

02/29/2020 3

  Carbony compounds The are compounds that contain carbonyl group Aldehydes Thes are carbonyl compounds with the following structure. Nomenclature of aldehydes Aldehyde are named ... Read More

Alcohols

02/29/2020 0

  Alcohols/Alkanols These are organic compounds that contain at least one hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to saturated carbon atom. Classification (a) According to the number ... Read More

Alkylhalides (R-X, X = Cl, Br, I)

02/29/2020 0

  Alkyl halides (R-X, X = Cl, Br, I) These are compounds with at least one halogen atom attached to the parent chain. Classification of ... Read More

Amine (organic chemistry)

02/29/2020 1

  Amines These are organic derivatives of ammonia Classification According to the number of alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom (a) Primary amines: have ... Read More